Know your Liver Function test :-

1. ALT ( alanine aminotransferase)
What does High ALT (previously known as- SGPT) mean in your LIVER FUNCTION TEST?
Ideally it should be less than 25. As this enzyme is specifically present only in liver cells, any damage to liver cells can increase this enzyme level in the blood.
Value higher than 35 indicates:-

a. Fat in the liver(fatty liver):-
Alcoholic as well as non alcoholic (NAFLD)
In NAFLD( NON alcoholic Fatty Liver disease) ALT (SGPT) IS HIGHER THAN AST (SGOT),
while people with alcoholic hepatitis, they have highly elevated levels of AST and AST : ALT ratio of 2:1
These patients will also have elevated levels of GGT also.

b. As sugar drives fat in the liver, Fatty liver drives Insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance drives prediabetes, Diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
So if ALT is high, you may have Sugar Dysregulations ,Prediabetes and Diabetes.

c. Measuring fructose levels in blood:-
It’s very difficult to measure fructose levels in the lab, but ALT levels correlates with fructose you consume.
High ALT levels means high fructose consumption.
Fructose:- (Non alcoholic Fatty Liver disease) If we eat 100 gm of sugar in a day, it has 50% fructose, and only liver cells can handle and metabolize this fructose converting it into cholesterol and triglycerides. If liver is producing more triglycerides than it can export through VLDL to all other tissues, it starts building up in the liver, pancreas and intestine. (Visceral fat or bad fat or omental fat or inflammatory fat).

If ALT levels in the blood are very high, for example 10 times the normal range then it could be due to acute injury to the liver as we see in viral hepatitis.

2.Aspartate aminotransferase test (AST)

AST (previously known as- SGOT) is an enzyme that is always found in the heart, liver, muscle and other parts of the body. We usually measure the AST alongside ALT since the levels of AST are not specific for the damage of the liver; we usually measure it with the ALT to check for problems in the liver.

A damaged liver allows AST to be released to the bloodstream, so we use high levels of AST to suggest a problem with the muscles or the liver.

Typically, adults usually have their normal range for AST as up to 40 IU/L (international unit per litre). This range is usually higher for infants and young children.

3. Albumin Test

This albumin is the main protein your liver produces, and it carries out a lot of important functions in the body. Some of these functions include:

• Providing nourishment for the tissues.

• Preventing fluid leakage from the blood vessels.

• Being a medium for transporting vitamins, hormones and other substances to the entire body.

On a normal day, your result for albumin test should range from 3.5-6.0 grams per decilitre (g/dL), but when a person is suffering from poor nutrition, infection, inflammation and kidney or liver disease, the result can become low.

and globulin are two types of protein in your body. The total protein test measures the total amount of albumin and globulin in your body. It’s used as part of your routine health checkup. It may also be used if you have unexpected weight loss, fatigue, or the symptoms of a kidney or liver disease. The normal range for total protein is between 6 and 8.3 grams per deciliter (g/dL). This range may vary slightly among laboratories.

5. Bilirubin Test

The waste product from the breakdown of red blood cells is bilirubin. This product is always passed through the liver for some processes before it gets passed out through our stool.

0.1-1.2 milligram per decilitre (mg/dL) is the normal range for the total of bilirubin in the blood. There are cases where some inherited diseases can cause the amount of bilirubin in the blood to be higher when the liver is still functioning properly.

6. Alkaline Phosphate Test (ALP)

ALP is an enzyme that is found in the liver, bile duct and bone. We usually order this test in combination with other different tests.

When the levels of ALP are high, it usually indicates the blockage of the bile, liver inflammation or bone disease.

High levels of ALP are not usually a problem for children and teenagers since their bone is still growing. Pregnant women too, can also have a raise in their levels of ALP. Normally, the range for ALP is usually up to 120U/L in adults.

7. Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

A gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test measures the activity of GGT in your blood. GGT may leak into your bloodstream if your liver or bile duct is damaged, so having high levels of GGT in your blood may indicate liver disease or damage to your liver’s bile ducts. Bile ducts are tubes that carry bile (a fluid that’s important for digestion) in and out of your liver.
GGT is typically the first liver enzyme to increase in your blood when any of your liver bile ducts become blocked or constricted. Because of this, it’s the most sensitive liver enzyme test for finding bile duct issues.

Alcohol use disorder

Approximately 75% of people who have alcohol use disorder have elevated levels of GGT in their blood, so healthcare providers can use the test to screen for this condition. The normal range for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) varies from laboratory to laboratory. One common reference range for adults is 5 to 40 U/L (units per liter).